There is a high incidence of lower extremity injuries incurred by runners as a result of repetitive and cumulative trauma to the musculoskeletal system, particularly the lower leg. With the average runner striking the ground about 600 times per kilometre, there is potential for developing overuse injuries.
Skateboarding is a popular recreational activity that involves the use of skateboards to navigate through challenging obstacles that are constructed in the form of elaborate ramps and other skate structures.
Mixed martial arts (MMA) refers to a fast-paced combat sport that incorporates a broad range of fighting styles such as boxing, Muay Thai, karate, jiu-jitsu, taekwondo, etc. between two martial art experts in competitive events.
Rugby is a field-based contact sport which has increasing participation rates in over 100 countries worldwide. At various levels of competition, there can be around 7-15 players on two opposing sides, depending on the league and country.
With intense training and competition schedules that last up to several weeks, it is possible for an athlete to gradually experience a decline in performance because of the high level of stress that is consistently placed on the musculoskeletal system.
One of the oldest sports in the world, wrestling involves a combination of different grappling techniques performed by two competitors with the purpose of overpowering and pinning the opponent against a mat.
High-intensity interval training (HIIT) represents a fitness strategy that incorporates short, intense bouts of exercises with brief recovery periods to improve overall health-related outcomes in adult populations.
Figure skating is a competitive sport which requires high levels of expertise and skill in order to execute complex foot maneuvers such as jump landings with much finesse and ease.
The inclusion of core stabilisation exercises in training and preventative programmes is essential to protect an individual from injury and improve athletic performance.
Weight or strength training is commonly integrated into most workout routines with the purpose of increasing muscular strength, building endurance and elevating muscular hypertrophy.
Although the only major team sport to involve no body contact, volleyball entails long hours of intensive training sessions and competition that can result in significant changes to the musculoskeletal system, thereby placing the players at a higher risk for injuries.
The physiological demands of tennis place an intense amount of load on the joints of tennis players, making them susceptible to a wide range of injuries of both the upper and lower extremity.
A triathlon incorporates three of the most popular sports disciplines – swimming, running and cycling – increasing the probability of triathletes developing overuse injuries that are commonly associated with the three sports.